Posts on this page:

Working with certificate revocation lists (CRL) in PowerShell (part 1)

Hello everyone!

Today I would like to summarize techniques on working with X.509 certificate revocation lists (CRL) in PowerShell. There are a lot of examples in my weblog, but most of this information is provided as context-specific addition to work in a given article’s context. Before talking about the subject, I’d like to put few words about the reason of this blog post and why it is written in that way.


As PowerShell evolves, it starts to cover more and new areas. And this process continues since PowerShell birth (in 2006). Systems administrators become more critical to script functionality. Previously, if something was not doable at all, we skipped that thing. With PowerShell we are able to do much more things. Maybe, not natively, maybe not in an elegant manner (say, through complex parsing), maybe very ugly, but we can do that right now. If community is interested in some area, they will develop a framework to make things easier and available to everyone.

One big area I’m interesting in is public key infrastructure, CryptoAPI, certificates and everything related to them. This happened several years ago (I recall it was in 2009) when I already was a passionate PowerShell enthusiast. Unfortunately, I realized that PowerShell has very-very basic support of certificate-related stuff. Mostly, this is due to poor support from underlying .NET platform. As the result, I attempted to start my big project to integrate cryptography into PowerShell through PS module and standalone scripts. Apparently, I was one of the first PS enthusiasts who started cryptography integration into PowerShell. I made huge work during these 7 years, went through tons of mistakes, bad choices, misunderstandings, trials and probes. It took 7 years and still continues. As of now, I have developed one of the best PowerShell module to work with PKI I’m aware of: PowerShell PKI. It is not just a module, it is a whole framework, which offers additional functionality through .NET-style objects and methods you can call from PS console. All this makes me confident in PowerShell PKI area.

Read more →

Efficient way to get AD user membership recursively with PowerShell

The other day, one customer asked for a solution to get full user membership in Active Directory for audit purposes. The solution should retrieve not only direct group membership, but indirect (through group nesting) too. Although, the question is plain and simple, solution is very interesting from various perspectives.

At first, let illustrate a sample user and group membership diagram:

Active Directory group membership graph

Quick diagram observation suggests us that we have a directed graph (it is not a tree), where users and groups are vertexes and membership relations are directed edges. Arrows identify relationship direction.

Our graph contains two users, User1 and User2 and eight groups: G1G8. In a given case, User1 is direct member of groups G1, G2 and G3, User2 is direct member of G8 only. Group G1 is member of G4, G2 is direct member of G4 and G5 and so on. For description purposes I labeled all edges. This should be clear.

Read more →

Convert data between binary, hex and Base64 in PowerShell – Managed Edition

Some time ago I wrote a blog post about converting data between Hex, Base64 and binary in PowerShell by using CryptoAPI functionality: Convert data between binary, hex and Base64 in PowerShell. I was impressed by those functions, because CryptStringToBinary function is magical and is able to convert “messy” hex string sequence (with or without address and ASCII columns which are not part of the data) to a pure byte array. I wish they have a bit more flexibility and extensibility. For example, when supporting certificate issues, I receive dumps from 3rd party tools (OpenSSL and similar) and browsers. They use different delimiters to separate hex octets. One tool use minus signs, other use colons to separate hex octets:

0000 - 20 ab 34 00 ff 87 50 1e-de fb c9 3d 10 2f 7b fd    .4...P....=./{.
0010 - 99 a1 61 e0 3d 5f 93 82-63 e9 0a 6f 1a 22 4f 04   ..a.=_..c..o."O.

or this:


Unfortunately, CryptStringToBinary supports only whitespace characters as delimiter and I have to manually remove them from dump before converting to a byte array. So I decided to get my own converter with blackjack and hookers in managed language.

Read more →

PowerShell PKI Module v3.2.6 is out!

Hello S-1-1-0!

After three months since PSPKI module v3.2.5 was released I received a number of unfortunate bugs (which weren’t tested very well from my side) and other issues. So I decided to address them while I have some spare time. In addition, I made an attempt to provide new functionality I really missed in the module.

This release is intended to make the module more stable and less buggy. In some aspects it become faster.

Bug Fixes

I have fixed a number of private bugs (found by myself) and publically reported bugs:

For detailed change logs and privately reported issues see:

Read more →

PowerShell 5.0 and Applocker. When security doesn’t mean security (part 2)

In the previous post, I tried to explain some inconsistences in the current implementation of Constrained PowerShell feature that is introduced in PowerShell 5.0: PowerShell 5.0 and Applocker. When security doesn’t mean security. After having a long email and twitter conversations I realized that many of readers blame me for being against Constrained PowerShell feature. It is not true. In this post, I would like to summarize what is going wrong now and how it should work in my opinion.

Read more →